Karin Westlund High, Ph.D.

Bio / Education: 

M.A. University of Texas at Austin, 1976
Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch, 1981

Research Description: 

Our studies are designed to understand (1) how sensitization of pain pathways can lead to persistent pain states and (2) how inflammatory pain can be alleviated. In response to tissue injury and pain, an amplified neurogenic drive is generated in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Nerve impulses then propagate back out to the peripheral injury site bringing neurotransmitter signals that directly impact inflammatory responses. Three neuroinflammatory models are being utilized to examine neurotransmitter activation and to promote reduction of inflammation and pain: (1) temporomandibular joint pain, (2) inflammatory pain in the knee joint, and (3) a model of visceral pain resembling chronic human pancreatitis. Treatment strategies, such as gene therapy and transdermal delivery of opioid peptides for site specific anti-nociceptive action, are being utilized to stop the activation caused by neurotransmitters for both the pancreatitis and muscle/joint inflammatory models. Information about the interface between the nervous system and the immune system is being generated, including the potential for tissue repair promoted by opioid peptides. Our investigations have led to discovery of a new visceral pain pathway and a new acid sensing G-coupled receptor in the knee joint lining. We are also developing new strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, inflammation and tissue repair after injury.

Grants: 

NIH RO1 NS39041-14 (Westlund, PI) “Neurogenic Amplification of Pancreatitis Pain” (04/01/00 - 06/30/16)

Selected Publications: 

                                             

McIlwrath SL, Westlund KN. Pharmacological attenuation of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis induced hypersensitivity in rats. World J Gastroenterol 21(3): 836-853, 2015. PMID: 25624717

Lyons DN, Kniffin TC, Zhang L, Danaher RJ, Miller CS, Bocanegra JL, Carlson CR, Westlund KN. Induced Facial Pain, Anxiety- and Depression- Related Behaviors Associated with Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) Injury. Neuroscience 295:126-38, 2015. PMID: 25818051

Westlund KN, Zhang LP, Ma F, Nesemeier R, Ruiz JC, Ostertag EM, Crawford JS, Babinski K, Marcinkiewicz MM. A rat knockout model implicates TRPC4 in visceral pain sensation. Neuroscience, 262:165-175, 2014. PMID: 24388923

Ma F, Zhang L, Lyons D, Westlund KN.Orofacial neuropathic pain mouse model induced by Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) of the infraorbital nerve. Mol Brain 5(1):44, 2012.  PMID: 23270529

Westlund KN, Zhang L, Ma F, Oz HS. Chronic inflammation and pain in a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) (p55/p75-/-) dual deficient murine model. Transl Res. 160(1):84-94, 2012. PMID: 22687964

Westlund, KN and Vera-Portocarrero, LP. Rat Models of Pancreatitis Pain. Methods in Molecular Biology 851: 223-38, 2012. PMID: 22351095

Westlund KN. Gene Therapy Approach: HSV-Enkephalin Reduces Fibrosis, Inflammation, and Pain, Chronic Pancreatitis, David Sutherland (Ed.), 2012. ISBN: 978-953-51-0011-9,  Available from InTech: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/gene-therapy-approach-hsv-enkephalin-reduces-fibrosis-inflammation-and-pain

Westlund, K.N. and Willis, W.D., Ch. 33 Pain System. In: THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM, Third Edition, J. Mai and G. Paxinos (ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2011.

Westlund KN, Kochukov MY, Lu Y and McNearney TA. Impact of central and peripheral TRPV1 and ROS levels on proinflammatory mediators and nociceptive behavior. Molecular Pain 6:46, 2010. PMID: 20691059

Other Publications

High Lab
PubMed Publications: 

  • Kniffin, T.C.;Danaher, R.J.;Westlund, K.N.;Ma, F.;Miller, C.S.;Carlson, C.R. "Persistent neuropathic pain influences persistence behavior in rats." Journal of oral & facial pain and headache 29, 2 (2015): 183-92. [PubMed Link] |
  • Lyons, D.N.;Kniffin, T.C.;Zhang, L.P.;Danaher, R.J.;Miller, C.S.;Bocanegra, J.L.;Carlson, C.R.;Westlund, K.N. "Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) injury induces chronic facial pain and susceptibility to anxiety-related behaviors." Neuroscience 295, (2015): 126-38. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • McIlwrath, S.L.;Westlund, K.N. "Pharmacological attenuation of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis induced hypersensitivity in rats." World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 21, 3 (2015): 836-53. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ma, F.;Zhang, L.;Oz, H.S.;Mashni, M.;Westlund, K.N. "Dysregulated TNFα promotes cytokine proteome profile increases and bilateral orofacial hypersensitivity." Neuroscience 300, (2015): 493-507. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Kline RH, 4th;Exposto, F.G.;O'Buckley, S.C.;Westlund, K.N.;Nackley, A.G. "Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat." Neuroscience 290, (2015): 561-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Kouzoukas, D.E.;Meyer-Siegler, K.L.;Ma, F.;Westlund, K.N.;Hunt, D.E.;Vera, P.L. "Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates PAR-Induced Bladder Pain." PloS one 10, 5 (2015): e0127628. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Zhang, L.;Kline RH, 4th;McNearney, T.A.;Johnson, M.P.;Westlund, K.N. "Cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist attenuates pain related behavior in rats with chronic alcohol/high fat diet induced pancreatitis." Molecular pain 10, (2014): 66. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Zhang, L.P.;Ma, F.;Nesemeier, R.;Ruiz, J.C.;Ostertag, E.M.;Crawford, J.S.;Babinski, K.;Marcinkiewicz, M.M. "A rat knockout model implicates TRPC4 in visceral pain sensation." Neuroscience 262, (2014): 165-75. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Clark, S.P.;Bollag, W.B.;Westlund, K.N.;Ma, F.;Falls, G.;Xie, D.;Johnson, M.;Isales, C.M.;Bhattacharyya, M.H. "Pine oil effects on chemical and thermal injury in mice and cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons." Phytotherapy research : PTR 28, 2 (2014): 252-60. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Zhang, L.P.;Ma, F.;Abshire, S.M.;Westlund, K.N. "Prolonged high fat/alcohol exposure increases TRPV4 and its functional responses in pancreatic stellate cells." American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 304, 9 (2013): R702-11. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • McNearney, T.A.;Westlund, K.N. "Excitatory amino acids display compartmental disparity between plasma and synovial fluid in clinical arthropathies." International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 6, 3 (2013): 492-7. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Zhang, L.;Ma, F.;Oz, H.S. "Chronic inflammation and pain in a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) (p55/p75-/-) dual deficient murine model." Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine 160, 1 (2012): 84-94. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ma, F.;Zhang, L.;Lyons, D.;Westlund, K.N. "Orofacial neuropathic pain mouse model induced by Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) of the infraorbital nerve." Molecular brain 5, (2012): 44. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Oz, H.S.;Lu, Y.;Vera-Portocarrero, L.P.;Ge, P.;Silos-Santiago, A.;Westlund, K.N. "Gene expression profiling and endothelin in acute experimental pancreatitis." World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 18, 32 (2012): 4257-69. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ma, F.;Zhang, L.;Westlund, K.N. "Trigeminal nerve injury ErbB3/ErbB2 promotes mechanical hypersensitivity." Anesthesiology 117, 2 (2012): 381-8. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Vera-Portocarrero, L. "Rat models of pancreatitis pain." Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 851, (2012): 223-38. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • McNearney, T.A.;Ma, Y.;Chen, Y.;Taglialatela, G.;Yin, H.;Zhang, W.R.;Westlund, K.N. "A peripheral neuroimmune link: glutamate agonists upregulate NMDA NR1 receptor mRNA and protein, vimentin, TNF-alpha, and RANTES in cultured human synoviocytes." American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 298, 3 (2010): R584-98. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Kochukov, M.Y.;Lu, Y.;McNearney, T.A. "Impact of central and peripheral TRPV1 and ROS levels on proinflammatory mediators and nociceptive behavior." Molecular pain 6, (2010): 46. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ma, F.;Zhang, L.;Westlund, K.N. "Reactive oxygen species mediate TNFR1 increase after TRPV1 activation in mouse DRG neurons." Molecular pain 5, (2009): 31. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ren, Y.;Zhang, L.;Lu, Y.;Yang, H.;Westlund, K.N. "Central lateral thalamic neurons receive noxious visceral mechanical and chemical input in rats." Journal of neurophysiology 102, 1 (2009): 244-58. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Vera-Portocarrero, L.P.;Zhang, L.;Wei, J.;Quast, M.J.;Cleeland, C.S. "fMRI of supraspinal areas after morphine and one week pancreatic inflammation in rats." NeuroImage 44, 1 (2009): 23-34. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Kochukov, M.Y.;McNearney, T.A.;Yin, H.;Zhang, L.;Ma, F.;Ponomareva, L.;Abshire, S.;Westlund, K.N. "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) enhances functional thermal and chemical responses of TRP cation channels in human synoviocytes." Molecular pain 5, (2009): 49. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N. "Gene therapy for pancreatitis pain." Gene therapy 16, 4 (2009): 483-92. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lu, Y.;McNearney, T.A.;Wilson, S.P.;Yeomans, D.C.;Westlund, K.N. "Joint capsule treatment with enkephalin-encoding HSV-1 recombinant vector reduces inflammatory damage and behavioural sequelae in rat CFA monoarthritis." The European journal of neuroscience 27, 5 (2008): 1153-65. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Yang, H.;McNearney, T.A.;Chu, R.;Lu, Y.;Ren, Y.;Yeomans, D.C.;Wilson, S.P.;Westlund, K.N. "Enkephalin-encoding herpes simplex virus-1 decreases inflammation and hotplate sensitivity in a chronic pancreatitis model." Molecular pain 4, (2008): 8. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lu, Y.;McNearney, T.A.;Lin, W.;Wilson, S.P.;Yeomans, D.C.;Westlund, K.N. "Treatment of inflamed pancreas with enkephalin encoding HSV-1 recombinant vector reduces inflammatory damage and behavioral sequelae." Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 15, 10 (2007): 1812-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ji, G.;Zhou, S.;Kochukov, M.Y.;Westlund, K.N.;Carlton, S.M. "Plasticity in intact A delta- and C-fibers contributes to cold hypersensitivity in neuropathic rats." Neuroscience 150, 1 (2007): 182-93. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Kochukov, M.Y.;McNearney, T.A.;Fu, Y.;Westlund, K.N. "Thermosensitive TRP ion channels mediate cytosolic calcium response in human synoviocytes." American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 291, 3 (2006): C424-32. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Lisi, T.L.;Westlund, K.N. "Increased release of serotonin in the spinal cord during low, but not high, frequency transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in rats with joint inflammation." Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 87, 8 (2006): 1137-40. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N. "Chapter 9 The dorsal horn and hyperalgesia." Handbook of clinical neurology 81, (2006): 103-25. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Christensen, B.N.;Kochukov, M.;McNearney, T.A.;Taglialatela, G.;Westlund, K.N. "Proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor mobilizes calcium in human synovial cells." American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 289, 3 (2005): C601-8. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Nesic, O.;Lee, J.;Johnson, K.M.;Ye, Z.;Xu, G.Y.;Unabia, G.C.;Wood, T.G.;McAdoo, D.J.;Westlund, K.N.;Hulsebosch, C.E.;Regino Perez-Polo, J. "Transcriptional profiling of spinal cord injury-induced central neuropathic pain." Journal of neurochemistry 95, 4 (2005): 998-1014. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Nesic-Taylor, O.;Cittelly, D.;Ye, Z.;Xu, G.Y.;Unabia, G.;Lee, J.C.;Svrakic, N.M.;Liu, X.H.;Youle, R.J.;Wood, T.G.;McAdoo, D.;Westlund, K.N.;Hulsebosch, C.E.;Perez-Polo, J.R. "Exogenous Bcl-xL fusion protein spares neurons after spinal cord injury." Journal of neuroscience research 79, 5 (2005): 628-37. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Crown, E.D.;Ye, Z.;Johnson, K.M.;Xu, G.Y.;McAdoo, D.J.;Westlund, K.N.;Hulsebosch, C.E. "Upregulation of the phosphorylated form of CREB in spinothalamic tract cells following spinal cord injury: relation to central neuropathic pain." Neuroscience letters 384, 1-2 (2005): 139-44. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Vera-Portocarrero, L.;Westlund, K.N. "Role of neurogenic inflammation in pancreatitis and pancreatic pain." Neuro-Signals 14, 4 (2005): 158-65. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lawand, N.B.;Reddig, W.J.;Cashin, A.E.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "NMDA receptors and associated signaling pathways: a role in knee joint blood flow regulation." European journal of pharmacology 499, 1-2 (2004): 155-61. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Smiley, M.M.;Lu, Y.;Vera-Portocarrero, L.P.;Zidan, A.;Westlund, K.N. "Intrathecal gabapentin enhances the analgesic effects of subtherapeutic dose morphine in a rat experimental pancreatitis model." Anesthesiology 101, 3 (2004): 759-65. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • McNearney, T.;Baethge, B.A.;Cao, S.;Alam, R.;Lisse, J.R.;Westlund, K.N. "Excitatory amino acids, TNF-alpha, and chemokine levels in synovial fluids of patients with active arthropathies." Clinical and experimental immunology 137, 3 (2004): 621-7. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Vera-Portocarrero, L.P.;Westlund, K.N. "Attenuation of nociception in a model of acute pancreatitis by an NK-1 antagonist." Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior 77, 3 (2004): 631-40. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Zhang, L.;Zhang, X.;Westlund, K.N. "Restoration of spontaneous exploratory behaviors with an intrathecal NMDA receptor antagonist or a PKC inhibitor in rats with acute pancreatitis." Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior 77, 1 (2004): 145-53. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Hendiani, J.A.;Westlund, K.N.;Lawand, N.;Goel, N.;Lisse, J.;McNearney, T. "Mechanical sensation and pain thresholds in patients with chronic arthropathies." The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society 4, 4 (2003): 203-11. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lu, Y.;Vera-Portocarrero, L.P.;Westlund, K.N. "Intrathecal coadministration of D-APV and morphine is maximally effective in a rat experimental pancreatitis model." Anesthesiology 98, 3 (2003): 734-40. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lisi, T.L.;Westlund, K.N.;Sluka, K.A. "Comparison of microdialysis and push-pull perfusion for retrieval of serotonin and norepinephrine in the spinal cord dorsal horn." Journal of neuroscience methods 126, 2 (2003): 187-94. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Vera-Portocarrero, L.P.;Lu, Y.;Westlund, K.N. "Nociception in persistent pancreatitis in rats: effects of morphine and neuropeptide alterations." Anesthesiology 98, 2 (2003): 474-84. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Nesic, O.;Svrakic, N.M.;Xu, G.Y.;McAdoo, D.;Westlund, K.N.;Hulsebosch, C.E.;Ye, Z.;Galante, A.;Soteropoulos, P.;Tolias, P.;Young, W.;Hart, R.P.;Perez-Polo, J.R. "DNA microarray analysis of the contused spinal cord: effect of NMDA receptor inhibition." Journal of neuroscience research 68, 4 (2002): 406-23. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Zhang, L.;Lu, Y.;Chen, Y.;Westlund, K.N. "Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists block secondary thermal hyperalgesia in rats with knee joint inflammation." The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 300, 1 (2002): 149-56. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Vera-Portocarrero, L.P.;Mills, C.D.;Ye, Z.;Fullwood, S.D.;McAdoo, D.J.;Hulsebosch, C.E.;Westlund, K.N. "Rapid changes in expression of glutamate transporters after spinal cord injury." Brain research 927, 1 (2002): 104-10. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Qiu, J.;Nesic, O.;Ye, Z.;Rea, H.;Westlund, K.N.;Xu, G.Y.;McAdoo, D.;Hulsebosch, C.E.;Perez-Polo, J.R. "Bcl-xL expression after contusion to the rat spinal cord." Journal of neurotrauma 18, 11 (2001): 1267-78. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lu, Y.;Westlund, K.N. "Effects of baclofen on colon inflammation-induced Fos, CGRP and SP expression in spinal cord and brainstem." Brain research 889, 1-2 (2001): 118-30. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Zhang, L.;Hoff, A.O.;Wimalawansa, S.J.;Cote, G.J.;Gagel, R.F.;Westlund, K.N. "Arthritic calcitonin/alpha calcitonin gene-related peptide knockout mice have reduced nociceptive hypersensitivity." Pain 89, 2-3 (2001): 265-73. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Houghton, A.K.;Wang, C.C.;Westlund, K.N. "Do nociceptive signals from the pancreas travel in the dorsal column?" Pain 89, 2-3 (2001): 207-20. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Willis WD, J.;Westlund, K.N. "The role of the dorsal column pathway in visceral nociception." Current pain and headache reports 5, 1 (2001): 20-6. [PubMed Link] |
  • Wang, C.C.;Westlund, K.N. "Responses of rat dorsal column neurons to pancreatic nociceptive stimulation." Neuroreport 12, 11 (2001): 2527-30. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Zhang, L.P.;Chen, Y.;Clark, B.P.;Sher, E.;Westlund, K.N. "The Role of Type 1 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Generation of Dorsal Root Reflexes Induced by Acute Arthritis or the Spinal Infusion of 4-Aminopyridine in the Anesthetized Rat." The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society 1, 2 (2000): 151-161. [PubMed Link] |
  • Lawand, N.B.;McNearney, T.;Westlund, K.N. "Amino acid release into the knee joint: key role in nociception and inflammation." Pain 86, 1-2 (2000): 69-74. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • McNearney, T.;Speegle, D.;Lawand, N.;Lisse, J.;Westlund, K.N. "Excitatory amino acid profiles of synovial fluid from patients with arthritis." The Journal of rheumatology 27, 3 (2000): 739-45. [PubMed Link] |
  • Gangula, P.R.;Zhao, H.;Supowit, S.C.;Wimalawansa, S.J.;Dipette, D.J.;Westlund, K.N.;Gagel, R.F.;Yallampalli, C. "Increased blood pressure in alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide/calcitonin gene knockout mice." Hypertension 35, 1 Pt 2 (2000): 470-5. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Hulsebosch, C.E.;Xu, G.Y.;Perez-Polo, J.R.;Westlund, K.N.;Taylor, C.P.;McAdoo, D.J. "Rodent model of chronic central pain after spinal cord contusion injury and effects of gabapentin." Journal of neurotrauma 17, 12 (2000): 1205-17. [PubMed Link] |
  • Nauta, H.J.;Soukup, V.M.;Fabian, R.H.;Lin, J.T.;Grady, J.J.;Williams, C.G.;Campbell, G.A.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis WD, J. "Punctate midline myelotomy for the relief of visceral cancer pain." Journal of neurosurgery 92, 2 Suppl (2000): 125-30. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N. "Visceral nociception." Current review of pain 4, 6 (2000): 478-87. [PubMed Link] |
  • Lawand, N.B.;Lu, Y.;Westlund, K.N. "Nicotinic cholinergic receptors: potential targets for inflammatory pain relief." Pain 80, 1-2 (1999): 291-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Wimalawansa, S.M.;Chapa, M.T.;Wei, J.N.;Westlund, K.N.;Quast, M.J.;Wimalawansa, S.J. "Reversal of weightlessness-induced musculoskeletal losses with androgens: quantification by MRI." Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 86, 6 (1999): 1841-6. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Willis, W.D.;Al-Chaer, E.D.;Quast, M.J.;Westlund, K.N. "A visceral pain pathway in the dorsal column of the spinal cord." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, 14 (1999): 7675-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Houghton, A.K.;Hewitt, E.;Westlund, K.N. "Dorsal column lesion prevents mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia in osteotomy model." Pain 82, 1 (1999): 73-80. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lu, Y.;Westlund, K.N. "Gabapentin attenuates nociceptive behaviors in an acute arthritis model in rats." The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 290, 1 (1999): 214-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Wang, C.C.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Ascending projections from the area around the spinal cord central canal: A Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin study in rats." The Journal of comparative neurology 415, 3 (1999): 341-67. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ye, Z.;Wimalawansa, S.J.;Westlund, K.N. "Receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide: localization in the dorsal and ventral spinal cord." Neuroscience 92, 4 (1999): 1389-97. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Houghton, A.K.;Lu, Y.;Westlund, K.N. "S-(+)-3-isobutylgaba and its stereoisomer reduces the amount of inflammation and hyperalgesia in an acute arthritis model in the rat." The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 285, 2 (1998): 533-8. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Houghton, A.K.;Valdez, J.G.;Westlund, K.N. "Peripheral morphine administration blocks the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia after bone damage in the rat." Anesthesiology 89, 1 (1998): 190-201. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Hirshberg, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Comments on editorials: Berkley, PAIN, 70 (1997) 1-2 and Gybels, PAIN, 70 (1997) 103-107." Pain 74, 1 (1998): 101-2. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Wu, J.;Lin, Q.;Lu, Y.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Changes in nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the spinal cord of rat following induction of chronic arthritis." Experimental brain research 118, 4 (1998): 457-65. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Péréon, Y.;Dettbarn, C.;Lu, Y.;Westlund, K.N.;Zhang, J.T.;Palade, P. "Dihydropyridine receptor isoform expression in adult rat skeletal muscle." Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 436, 3 (1998): 309-14. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Al-Chaer, E.D.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Sensitization of postsynaptic dorsal column neuronal responses by colon inflammation." Neuroreport 8, 15 (1997): 3267-73. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lawand, N.B.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Blockade of joint inflammation and secondary hyperalgesia by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor." Neuroreport 8, 4 (1997): 895-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Nauta, H.J.;Hewitt, E.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis WD, J. "Surgical interruption of a midline dorsal column visceral pain pathway. Case report and review of the literature." Journal of neurosurgery 86, 3 (1997): 538-42. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Al-Chaer, E.D.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Nucleus gracilis: an integrator for visceral and somatic information." Journal of neurophysiology 78, 1 (1997): 521-7. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Neuroanatomy of the pain system and of the pathways that modulate pain." Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society 14, 1 (1997): 2-31. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Houghton, A.K.;Kadura, S.;Westlund, K.N. "Dorsal column lesions reverse the reduction of homecage activity in rats with pancreatitis." Neuroreport 8, 17 (1997): 3795-800. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Houghton, A.K.;Hewitt, E.;Westlund, K.N. "Enhanced withdrawal responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli after bone injury." Pain 73, 3 (1997): 325-37. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Lawand, N.B.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Excitatory amino acid receptor involvement in peripheral nociceptive transmission in rats." European journal of pharmacology 324, 2-3 (1997): 169-77. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Milton, M.A.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Differential roles of neurokinin 1 and neurokinin 2 receptors in the development and maintenance of heat hyperalgesia induced by acute inflammation." British journal of pharmacology 120, 7 (1997): 1263-73. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Hirshberg, R.M.;Al-Chaer, E.D.;Lawand, N.B.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Is there a pathway in the posterior funiculus that signals visceral pain?" Pain 67, 2-3 (1996): 291-305. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Al-Chaer, E.D.;Lawand, N.B.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Pelvic visceral input into the nucleus gracilis is largely mediated by the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway." Journal of neurophysiology 76, 4 (1996): 2675-90. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Al-Chaer, E.D.;Lawand, N.B.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Visceral nociceptive input into the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus: a new function for the dorsal column pathway." Journal of neurophysiology 76, 4 (1996): 2661-74. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ye, Z.;Westlund, K.N. "Ultrastructural localization of glutamate receptor subunits (NMDAR1, AMPA GluR1 and GluR2/3) and spinothalamic tract cells." Neuroreport 7, 15-17 (1996): 2581-5. [PubMed Link] |
  • Houghton, A.K.;Westlund, K.N. "An I2 imidazoline ligand, RS 45041, potentiates hyperalgesia in acute arthritis." Neuroreport 7, 9 (1996): 1497-501. [PubMed Link] |
  • Al-Chaer, E.D.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Potentiation of thalamic responses to colorectal distension by visceral inflammation." Neuroreport 7, 10 (1996): 1635-9. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Craig, A.D. "Association of spinal lamina I projections with brainstem catecholamine neurons in the monkey." Experimental brain research 110, 2 (1996): 151-62. [PubMed Link] |
  • Rees, H.;Sluka, K.A.;Lu, Y.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Dorsal root reflexes in articular afferents occur bilaterally in a chronic model of arthritis in rats." Journal of neurophysiology 76, 6 (1996): 4190-3. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Willis, W.D.;Sluka, K.A.;Rees, H.;Westlund, K.N. "Cooperative mechanisms of neurotransmitter action in central nervous sensitization." Progress in brain research 110, (1996): 151-66. [PubMed Link] |
  • Sluka, K.A.;Rees, H.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Fiber types contributing to dorsal root reflexes induced by joint inflammation in cats and monkeys." Journal of neurophysiology 74, 3 (1995): 981-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Lu, Y.;Kadekaro, M.;Harmann, P.;Terrell, M.L.;Pizzo, D.P.;Hulsebosch, C.E.;Eisenberg, H.M.;Perez-Polo, J.R. "NGF-producing transfected 3T3 cells: behavioral and histological assessment of transplants in nigral lesioned rats." Journal of neuroscience research 41, 3 (1995): 367-73. [PubMed Link] |
  • Supowit, S.C.;Gururaj, A.;Ramana, C.V.;Westlund, K.N.;Dipette, D.J. "Enhanced neuronal expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide in mineralocorticoid-salt hypertension." Hypertension 25, 6 (1995): 1333-8. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Supowit, S.C.;Christensen, M.D.;Westlund, K.N.;Hallman, D.M.;Dipette, D.J. "Dexamethasone and activators of the protein kinase A and C signal transduction pathways regulate neuronal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression and release." Brain research 686, 1 (1995): 77-86. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Cameron, A.A.;Khan, I.A.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "The efferent projections of the periaqueductal gray in the rat: a Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin study. II. Descending projections." The Journal of comparative neurology 351, 4 (1995): 585-601. [PubMed Link] |
  • Cameron, A.A.;Khan, I.A.;Westlund, K.N.;Cliffer, K.D.;Willis, W.D. "The efferent projections of the periaqueductal gray in the rat: a Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin study. I. Ascending projections." The Journal of comparative neurology 351, 4 (1995): 568-84. [PubMed Link] |
  • Rees, H.;Sluka, K.A.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "The role of glutamate and GABA receptors in the generation of dorsal root reflexes by acute arthritis in the anaesthetized rat." The Journal of physiology 484 ( Pt 2), (1995): 437-45. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Inflammation-induced release of excitatory amino acids is prevented by spinal administration of a GABAA but not by a GABAB receptor antagonist in rats." The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 271, 1 (1994): 76-82. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Jordan, H.H.;Westlund, K.N. "Reduction in joint swelling and hyperalgesia following post-treatment with a non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist." Pain 59, 1 (1994): 95-100. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Jordan, H.H.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Differential effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptor antagonists on spinal release of amino acids after development of acute arthritis in rats." Brain research 664, 1-2 (1994): 77-84. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Lawand, N.B.;Westlund, K.N. "Joint inflammation is reduced by dorsal rhizotomy and not by sympathectomy or spinal cord transection." Annals of the rheumatic diseases 53, 5 (1994): 309-14. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Rees, H.;Sluka, K.A.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Do dorsal root reflexes augment peripheral inflammation?" Neuroreport 5, 7 (1994): 821-4. [PubMed Link] |
  • Sluka, K.A.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Central Control of Peripheral Joint Inflammation and Heat Hyperalgesia." Progress in pain research and management 2, 5 (1994): 359-371. [PubMed Link] |
  • Sluka, K.A.;Westlund, K.N. "Spinal cord amino acid release and content in an arthritis model: the effects of pretreatment with non-NMDA, NMDA, and NK1 receptor antagonists." Brain research 627, 1 (1993): 89-103. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Joint inflammation and hyperalgesia are reduced by spinal bicuculline." Neuroreport 5, 2 (1993): 109-12. [PubMed Link] |
  • Sluka, K.A.;Westlund, K.N. "Centrally administered non-NMDA but not NMDA receptor antagonists block peripheral knee joint inflammation." Pain 55, 2 (1993): 217-25. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Krakower, T.J.;Kwan, S.W.;Abell, C.W. "Intracellular distribution of monoamine oxidase A in selected regions of rat and monkey brain and spinal cord." Brain research 612, 1-2 (1993): 221-30. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Supowit, S.C.;Ramana, C.V.;Westlund, K.N.;Dipette, D.J. "Calcitonin gene-related peptide gene expression in the spontaneously hypertensive rat." Hypertension 21, 6 Pt 2 (1993): 1010-4. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Westlund, K.N. "An experimental arthritis model in rats: the effects of NMDA and non-NMDA antagonists on aspartate and glutamate release in the dorsal horn." Neuroscience letters 149, 1 (1993): 99-102. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Westlund, K.N. "Behavioral and immunohistochemical changes in an experimental arthritis model in rats." Pain 55, 3 (1993): 367-77. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sluka, K.A.;Westlund, K.N. "An experimental arthritis in rats: dorsal horn aspartate and glutamate increases." Neuroscience letters 145, 2 (1992): 141-4. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Lu, Y.;Werrbach-Perez, K.;Hulsebosch, C.E.;Morgan, B.;Pizzo, D.P.;Eisenberg, H.M.;Perez-Polo, J.R. "Effects of nerve growth factor and acetyl-L-carnitine arginyl amide on the human neuronal line HCN-1A." International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 10, 5 (1992): 361-73. [PubMed Link] |
  • Sluka, K.A.;Westlund, K.N. "Spinal projections of the locus coeruleus and the nucleus subcoeruleus in the Harlan and the Sasco Sprague-Dawley rat." Brain research 579, 1 (1992): 67-73. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Lu, Y.;Coggeshall, R.E.;Willis, W.D. "Serotonin is found in myelinated axons of the dorsolateral funiculus in monkeys." Neuroscience letters 141, 1 (1992): 35-8. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Sorkin, L.S.;Westlund, K.N.;Sluka, K.A.;Dougherty, P.M.;Willis, W.D. "Neural changes in acute arthritis in monkeys. IV. Time-course of amino acid release into the lumbar dorsal horn." Brain research. Brain research reviews 17, 1 (1992): 39-50. [PubMed Link] |
  • Dougherty, P.M.;Sluka, K.A.;Sorkin, L.S.;Westlund, K.N.;Willis, W.D. "Neural changes in acute arthritis in monkeys. I. Parallel enhancement of responses of spinothalamic tract neurons to mechanical stimulation and excitatory amino acids." Brain research. Brain research reviews 17, 1 (1992): 1-13. [PubMed Link] |
  • Sluka, K.A.;Dougherty, P.M.;Sorkin, L.S.;Willis, W.D.;Westlund, K.N. "Neural changes in acute arthritis in monkeys. III. Changes in substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and glutamate in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord." Brain research. Brain research reviews 17, 1 (1992): 29-38. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Sun, Y.C.;Sluka, K.A.;Dougherty, P.M.;Sorkin, L.S.;Willis, W.D. "Neural changes in acute arthritis in monkeys. II. Increased glutamate immunoreactivity in the medial articular nerve." Brain research. Brain research reviews 17, 1 (1992): 15-27. [PubMed Link] |
  • Carlton, S.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Zhang, D.;Willis, W.D. "GABA-immunoreactive terminals synapse on primate spinothalamic tract cells." The Journal of comparative neurology 322, 4 (1992): 528-37. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Carlton, S.M.;Zhang, D.;Willis, W.D. "Glutamate-immunoreactive terminals synapse on primate spinothalamic tract cells." The Journal of comparative neurology 322, 4 (1992): 519-27. [PubMed Link] |
  • Childs, G.V.;Westlund, K.N.;Tibolt, R.E.;Lloyd, J.M. "Hypothalamic regulatory peptides and their receptors: cytochemical studies of their role in regulation at the adenohypophyseal level." Journal of electron microscopy technique 19, 1 (1991): 21-41. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Dipette, D.J.;Carson, J.;Holland, O.B. "Decreased spinal cord content of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the spontaneously hypertensive rat." Neuroscience letters 131, 2 (1991): 183-6. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Zhang, D.;Carlton, S.M.;Sorkin, L.S.;Willis, W.D. "Noradrenergic innervation of somatosensory thalamus and spinal cord." Progress in brain research 88, (1991): 77-88. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Carlton, S.M.;Zhang, D.;Willis, W.D. "Direct catecholaminergic innervation of primate spinothalamic tract neurons." The Journal of comparative neurology 299, 2 (1990): 178-86. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Sorkin, L.S.;Ferrington, D.G.;Carlton, S.M.;Willcockson, H.H.;Willis, W.D. "Serotoninergic and noradrenergic projections to the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the monkey thalamus." The Journal of comparative neurology 295, 2 (1990): 197-207. [PubMed Link] |
  • Klein, C.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Coggeshall, R.E. "Percentages of dorsal root axons immunoreactive for galanin are higher than those immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat." Brain research 519, 1-2 (1990): 97-101. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Klein, C.M.;Coggeshall, R.E.;Carlton, S.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Sorkin, L.S. "Changes in calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the rat dorsal horn following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve." Neuroscience letters 115, 2-3 (1990): 149-54. [PubMed Link] |
  • Carlton, S.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Zhang, D.X.;Sorkin, L.S.;Willis, W.D. "Calcitonin gene-related peptide containing primary afferent fibers synapse on primate spinothalamic tract cells." Neuroscience letters 109, 1-2 (1990): 76-81. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;McNeill, D.L.;Patterson, J.T.;Coggeshall, R.E. "Aspartate immunoreactive axons in normal rat L4 dorsal roots." Brain research 489, 2 (1989): 347-51. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Kwan, S.W.;Patel, N.T.;Vulliet, P.R.;Hall, F.L.;Denney, R.M.;Shen, R.S.;Westlund, K.N.;Abell, C.W. "Isolation, characterization, and application of monoclonal antibodies to rat tyrosine hydroxylase." Journal of neuroscience research 23, 3 (1989): 316-25. [PubMed Link] |
  • McNeill, D.L.;Westlund, K.N.;Coggeshall, R.E. "Peptide immunoreactivity of unmyelinated primary afferent axons in rat lumbar dorsal roots." The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 37, 7 (1989): 1047-52. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Childs, G.V.;Westlund, K.N.;Unabia, G. "Characterization of anterior pituitary target cells for arginine vasopressin: including cells that store adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin-beta, and both hormones." Endocrinology 125, 1 (1989): 554-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;McNeill, D.L.;Coggeshall, R.E. "Glutamate immunoreactivity in rat dorsal root axons." Neuroscience letters 96, 1 (1989): 13-7. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Hung, K.C.;Briner, R.P.;Carlton, S.M.;Westlund, K.N. "Immunohistochemical localization of seven different peptides in the human spinal cord." The Journal of comparative neurology 280, 1 (1989): 158-70. [PubMed Link] |
  • Chung, K.S.;Lee, W.T.;Westlund, K.N. "Adrenergic fibers in the spinal cord of the monkey: light and electron microscopic study." Journal of the autonomic nervous system 28, 3 (1989): 203-10. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Denney, R.M.;Rose, R.M.;Abell, C.W. "Localization of distinct monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B cell populations in human brainstem." Neuroscience 25, 2 (1988): 439-56. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Harmann, P.A.;Hung, K.C.;Briner, R.P.;Westlund, K.N.;Carlton, S.M. "Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the human spinal cord: a light and electron microscopic analysis." The Journal of comparative neurology 269, 3 (1988): 371-80. [PubMed Link] |
  • Dipette, D.J.;Westlund, K.N.;Holland, O.B. "Dietary calcium modulates spinal cord content of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat." Neuroscience letters 95, 1-3 (1988): 335-40. [PubMed Link] |
  • Thorpe, L.W.;Westlund, K.N.;Kochersperger, L.M.;Abell, C.W.;Denney, R.M. "Immunocytochemical localization of monoamine oxidases A and B in human peripheral tissues and brain." The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 35, 1 (1987): 23-32. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Kemper, C.M.;O'Connor, D.T.;Westlund, K.N. "Immunocytochemical localization of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in neurons of the human brain stem." Neuroscience 23, 3 (1987): 981-9. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Denney, R.M.;Kochersperger, L.M.;Rose, R.M.;Abell, C.W. "Distinct monoamine oxidase A and B populations in primate brain." Science (New York, N.Y.) 230, 4722 (1985): 181-3. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Aguilera, G.;Childs, G.V. "Quantification of morphological changes in pituitary corticotropes produced by in vivo corticotropin-releasing factor stimulation and adrenalectomy." Endocrinology 116, 1 (1985): 439-45. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N. "Distribution of non-opioid peptides in the mammalian CNS: relationship to monoamine neurotransmitter systems." Progress in clinical and biological research 192, (1985): 395-402. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Wynn, P.C.;Chmielowiec, S.;Collins, T.J.;Childs, G.V. "Characterization of a potent biotin-conjugated CRF analog and the response of anterior pituitary corticotropes." Peptides 5, 3 (1984): 627-34. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Bowker, R.M.;Ziegler, M.G.;Coulter, J.D. "Origins and terminations of descending noradrenergic projections to the spinal cord of monkey." Brain research 292, 1 (1984): 1-16. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Correia, M.J.;Eden, A.R.;Westlund, K.N.;Coulter, J.D. "A study of some of the ascending and descending vestibular pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) using anterograde transneuronal autoradiography." Brain research 278, 1-2 (1983): 53-61. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Bowker, R.M.;Ziegler, M.G.;Coulter, J.D. "Noradrenergic projections to the spinal cord of the rat." Brain research 263, 1 (1983): 15-31. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Childs, G.V.;Naor, Z.;Hazum, E.;Tibolt, R.;Westlund, K.N.;Hancock, M.B. "Cytochemical characterization of pituitary target cells for biotinylated gonadotropin releasing hormone." Peptides 4, 4 (1983): 549-55. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Chmielowiec, S.;Childs, G.V. "Somatostatin fibers and their relationship to specific cell types (GH and TSH) in the rat anterior pituitary." Peptides 4, 4 (1983): 557-62. [PubMed Link] |
  • Bowker, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Sullivan, M.C.;Wilber, J.F.;Coulter, J.D. "Descending serotonergic, peptidergic and cholinergic pathways from the raphe nuclei: a multiple transmitter complex." Brain research 288, 1-2 (1983): 33-48. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Childs, G.V.;Naor, Z.;Hazum, E.;Tibolt, R.;Westlund, K.N.;Hancock, M.B. "Localization of biotinylated gonadotropin releasing hormone on pituitary monolayer cells with avidin-biotin-peroxidase complexes." The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 31, 12 (1983): 1422-5. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Childs, G.V. "Localization of serotonin fibers in the rat adenohypophysis." Endocrinology 111, 5 (1982): 1761-3. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Bowker, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Sullivan, M.C.;Wilber, J.F.;Coulter, J.D. "Transmitters of the raphe-spinal complex: immunocytochemical studies." Peptides 3, 3 (1982): 291-8. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Yezierski, R.P.;Bowker, R.M.;Kevetter, G.A.;Westlund, K.N.;Coulter, J.D.;Willis, W.D. "Serotonergic projections to the caudal brain stem: a double label study using horseradish peroxidase and serotonin immunocytochemistry." Brain research 239, 1 (1982): 258-64. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Ritchie, T.C.;Westlund, K.N.;Bowker, R.M.;Coulter, J.D.;Leonard, R.B. "The relationship of the medullary catecholamine containing neurones to the vagal motor nuclei." Neuroscience 7, 6 (1982): 1471-82. [PubMed Link] |
  • Bowker, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Coulter, J.D. "Origins of serotonergic projections to the lumbar spinal cord in the monkey using a combined retrograde transport and immunocytochemical technique." Brain research bulletin 9, 1-6 (1982): 271-8. [PubMed Link] |
  • Correia, M.J.;Eden, A.R.;Westlund, K.N.;Coulter, J.D. "Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods." Brain research 234, 2 (1982): 205-12. [PubMed Link] |
  • Bowker, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Sullivan, M.C.;Coulter, J.D. "A combined retrograde transport and immunocytochemical staining method for demonstrating the origins of serotonergic projections." The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 30, 8 (1982): 805-10. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Bowker, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Sullivan, M.C.;Coulter, J.D. "Organization of descending serotonergic projections to the spinal cord." Progress in brain research 57, (1982): 239-65. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Bowker, R.M.;Ziegler, M.G.;Coulter, J.D. "Descending noradrenergic projections and their spinal terminations." Progress in brain research 57, (1982): 219-38. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Bowker, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Sullivan, M.C.;Coulter, J.D. "Mapping monoaminergic and peptidergic pathways." Progress in clinical and biological research 79, (1982): 115-30. [PubMed Link] |
  • Westlund, K.N.;Bowker, R.M.;Ziegler, M.G.;Coulter, J.D. "Origins of spinal noradrenergic pathways demonstrated by retrograde transport of antibody to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase." Neuroscience letters 25, 3 (1981): 243-9. [PubMed Link] |
  • Bowker, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Coulter, J.D. "Serotonergic projections to the spinal cord from the midbrain in the rat: an immunocytochemical and retrograde transport study." Neuroscience letters 24, 3 (1981): 221-6. [PubMed Link] |
  • Bowker, R.M.;Westlund, K.N.;Coulter, J.D. "Origins of serotonergic projections to the spinal cord in rat: an immunocytochemical-retrograde transport study." Brain research 226, 1-2 (1981): 187-99. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]
  • Westlund, K.N.;Coulter, J.D. "Descending projections of the locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus/medial parabrachial nuclei in monkey: axonal transport studies and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunocytochemistry." Brain research 2, 3 (1980): 235-64. [PubMed Link] |
  • Coulter, J.D.;Bowker, R.M.;Wise, S.P.;Murray, E.A.;Castiglioni, A.J.;Westlund, K.N. "Cortical, tectal and medullary descending pathways to the cervical spinal cord." Progress in brain research 50, (1979): 263-79. [PubMed Link] | [ Full text ]